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Navigating the Mind: Understanding and Overcoming Cognitive Distortions


Welcome to the blog on how our thoughts and emotions shape our relationships. We'll explore cognitive distortions, delve into common thought patterns that can hold us back from truly connecting with others, and offer practical strategies for recognizing and overcoming these patterns. Whether you're struggling with a specific relationship issue or looking to improve your communication and connection, this blog provides valuable insights and guidance. Join us on this journey as we explore the impact of our thoughts on our relationships and learn how to improve them.


Thoughts, also known as cognitions, are the mental processes that shape our perception, interpretation, and understanding of the world. They encompass everything from basic observations to complex beliefs and play a crucial role in shaping our emotions and actions. Our thoughts can be positive, beneficial, or harmful, leading to cognitive distortions. Recognizing and understanding these thoughts and their impact on our behavior is crucial for personal growth and well-being.


What is Cognitive Distortion?


A cognitive distortion is an altered perception of reality caused by thought patterns that are not based on facts or evidence. These thinking patterns are often negative, irrational, and persistent, leading to negative emotions and maladaptive behavior. They may be unconscious, and individuals may not even be aware that they are engaging in them.

Cognitive distortions refer to habitual and often unconscious ways of thinking that are not based on reality and can lead to negative emotions and maladaptive behavior. Aaron Beck first studied these patterns of thought in depth in the 1960s, and are commonly associated with mental health conditions such as anxiety and depression. Examples of cognitive distortions include black-and-white thinking, jumping to conclusions, exaggerating adverse outcomes, taking things personally, assuming others' thoughts and emotions, and only focusing on the negative. Recognizing and addressing these distortions can lead to improved emotional well-being. Get a deeper understanding of the different cognitive distortions by reading ahead.


Types of cognitive distortions:


(i) Polarized thinking

Polarized thinking, also known as all-or-nothing or black-and-white thinking, is a cognitive distortion that happens when individuals consistently think in extremes. For example, if you believe that you will be wildly successful or a complete failure or that the people in your life are either saints or demons, you are likely engaging in polarized thinking. This type of thinking is unrealistic and can be unproductive, as most of the time, reality lies somewhere between the two extremes. This thinking can lead to negative emotions like frustration, disappointment, and hopelessness. It also leads to a lack of flexibility and the inability to see different perspectives or options. Additionally, polarized thinking can lead to a lack of motivation, as it can be demotivating if someone sees themselves as a failure or sees the world negatively. It's important to recognize and challenge this thinking type and try to see the shades of gray in any situation.


(ii) Overgeneralization

Overgeneralization occurs when individuals draw a conclusion based on one event and then inaccurately apply that conclusion to all similar situations. For instance, if someone receives a low score on one math test, they may then conclude that they are terrible at math in general, or if they have a bad experience in one relationship, they may believe they are not good at relationships in general. This kind of thinking is inaccurate and can be detrimental to a person's mental health. Overgeneralization has been linked to anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder.


(iii) Catastrophizing

Catastrophizing is a type of distorted thinking that causes individuals to fear or anticipate the worst when faced with uncertainty. When people catastrophize, ordinary concerns can rapidly become exaggerated. For example, if a person is expecting a check in the mail and it doesn't arrive, someone who catastrophizes may start to fear that it will never arrive, and as a result, they will not be able to pay rent, and the entire family will be evicted. It can be easy to dismiss catastrophizing as an overreaction. Still, it's important to remember that individuals who have developed this cognitive distortion may have had repeated negative experiences, such as chronic pain or childhood trauma, which cause them to anticipate the worst in many situations.


(iv) Personalization

Personalization, also known as 'Black-and-White thinking,' is a cognitive distortion that occurs when individuals take things personally, even when they are unrelated or caused by them. Personalization can be seen when individuals blame themselves for situations that are not their fault or out of control. It can also be when an individual assumes they have been intentionally excluded or targeted. This type of thinking can lead to heightened anxiety and depression.


(v) Mind reading

Mind reading is a cognitive distortion that occurs when individuals assume they know what others think without concrete evidence. It can be challenging to differentiate mind reading from empathy, which is the ability to understand and perceive others' emotions. To distinguish between the two, it's essential to consider all the available evidence, not just the evidence that confirms one's suspicions or beliefs. Studies show that mind reading is more prevalent among children than adolescents or adults and is linked to anxiety.


(vi) Fortune Telling

Fortune-telling, also known as "crystal balling" or "predictive thinking," is the habit of making predictions or assumptions about the future based on limited or irrelevant evidence. This type of thinking can be harmful as it can lead to limiting beliefs and negative self-fulfilling prophecies. It's important to remember that the future is uncertain and that our predictions and assumptions should be viewed as possibilities rather than facts.

(vii) Mental filtering

A cognitive distortion, known as a negative mental filter, is the tendency to overlook the positives and focus only on the negatives. This type of thinking is not only inaccurate, but it can also exacerbate symptoms of anxiety and depression. Studies have shown that having a negative outlook on oneself and one's future can lead to feelings of hopelessness. These negative thoughts can become severe enough to trigger suicidal thoughts.

(viii) Disqualifying the positive

Disqualifying the positive is a cognitive distortion involving a negative thinking bias, similar to mental filters. Individuals who discount the positive do not ignore or overlook something positive. Instead, they attribute it to chance or luck rather than acknowledging the positive outcome as the result of their skill, wise decisions, or persistence. This belief can lead to a lack of control over one's circumstances and reduce motivation, leading to a feeling of "learned helplessness." Additionally, discounting the positive can lead to a lack of self-esteem and self-worth, as people tend not to give themselves credit for their achievements. It can also lead to a lack of motivation to continue working towards goals, as people may feel that their achievements are just a fluke. This type of thinking can also lead to negative self-talk and self-doubt.


(ix) Should statements

When individuals think about what "should" and "ought" to be said or done, it's possible that a cognitive distortion is present. It's not typically helpful to reprimand oneself for what one "should" be able to do in a particular situation. "Should" and "the thinker often uses ought" statements to adopt a negative perspective of their life. These thoughts are often based on internalized family or cultural expectations that might not be relevant to the individual. Such thoughts can lower self-esteem, increase anxiety levels, and can also lead to feelings of guilt and shame. This type of thinking can also lead to negative self-talk and self-doubt. Additionally, it can cause a lack of motivation and discourage people from taking desired actions.


(x) Always Being Right

The "Always Being Right" distortion refers to the belief that one must always be correct, no matter the situation. This often results in the need to prove oneself and the refusal to admit to being wrong. It is a common trait among perfectionists and those struggling with Imposter Syndrome. This tendency can be seen in individuals who spend excessive amounts of time arguing over an opinion or political issue, refusing to acknowledge that it may just be a difference of opinion. This distorted thinking can lead to an unhealthy need to constantly prove oneself and an inability to accept when one is wrong.


(xi) Emotional reasoning

Emotional reasoning is a cognitive distortion characterized by believing that one's emotions are a reliable indicator of reality. This thinking believes that what one feels about a situation is the truth. While it's essential to acknowledge, validate, and express one's emotions, evaluating reality based on rational evidence is equally important. Studies have shown that emotional reasoning is a common cognitive distortion and a pattern of thinking used by people with and without anxiety or depression. Emotional reasoning can lead to negative thoughts and behaviors, as individuals tend to act based on their emotions rather than facts and reason. This can lead to impulsive decision-making and can lead to regrets later on. Additionally, it can lead to a lack of understanding of others' emotions and perspectives, which can cause difficulties in relationships.

(xii) Labeling

Labeling is a cognitive distortion in which individuals reduce themselves or others to a single, often harmful characteristic or descriptor, such as "drunk" or "failure." When people label, they define themselves and others based on a single event or behavior. This kind of thinking can lead to negative self-talk and self-doubt and can also cause misunderstandings and undervaluation of others. This can cause difficulties in relationships, as no one wants to be labeled negatively. Additionally, labeling can lead to negative self-talk and self-doubt, affecting one's self-esteem, motivation, and overall well-being. It can also lead to generalization and stereotyping, leading to discrimination or bias.

(xiii) Mislabeling

Mislabeling, also known as overgeneralization or name-calling, is a cognitive distortion involving emotionally charged, exaggerated, or inaccurate language when describing a situation or person. This labeling can be harmful because it can lead to negative self-talk and perceptions of others. For example, if someone says, "I'm such a failure," they are engaging in mislabeling after making a mistake. This kind of language is inaccurate and can also damage self-esteem and cause feelings of hopelessness.


(xiv) Fallacies
(a) Fallacy of control

The belief that we are either powerless to shape our circumstances or that we alone are responsible for everything that happens in our lives is a cognitive distortion known as the control fallacy. This distorted thinking is harmful and ignores the reality that we have some agency and choice in navigating life's events.


(b) Fallacy of Fairness

The belief that life should always be fair is a cognitive distortion, as the reality is that life is not always fair. Holding onto this belief can lead to negative emotions such as anger, resentment, and hopelessness when faced with unfair situations. It is essential to recognize that fairness is not always guaranteed and to adjust our expectations accordingly.


(c) Fallacy of Change

A common cognitive distortion is a belief that we can control the actions and behaviors of others by applying pressure or persuasion. This often stems from the idea that our happiness and success depend on the actions of those around us, leading us to believe that forcing others to change is the only way to achieve our goals. For example, a person who thinks, "If I just convince my partner to stop doing the things that bother me, I can be a better partner and a happier person," is displaying the fallacy of change. This mindset can be detrimental and lead to disappointment and frustration when others do not change how we want them to.


(d) Heaven’s Reward Fallacy

The idea that good things happen to good people and bad things happen to bad people is a common belief, but it's not always true. The "Heaven's Reward Fallacy" is a cognitive distortion that leads people to believe their struggles and hard work will ultimately be rewarded. Unfortunately, in reality, no matter how hard we work or how much we sacrifice, we may not consistently achieve our desired outcome. This type of thinking can lead to disappointment and frustration and can even contribute to feelings of anger and depression when the promised reward doesn't come.



How to overcome cognitive distortions and transform your mindset

The positive aspect is that cognitive distortions can be corrected over time. If you wish to change thought patterns that may not be beneficial, here are some steps you can take:


(i) Recognize the irrational thought

One of the first steps to correcting cognitive distortions is identifying the troublesome thought. When you notice that a thought is causing anxiety or affecting your mood negatively, it's important to understand the type of distorted thinking that is taking place. Understanding the thought patterns that lead to negative emotions and behaviors is crucial to changing them. To understand how your thoughts impact your emotions and actions, you may consider reading "Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy" by clinical psychologist Dr. David Burns. This book is considered by many as a comprehensive guide on this subject. Additionally, it's helpful to keep a journal to track your thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. This can help you identify patterns and distortions in your thinking.


(ii) Challenge and replace the irrational thought

Challenging and replacing an irrational thought with a more rational one is important in correcting cognitive distortions. This process involves actively questioning the validity of the thought and identifying any potential inaccuracies or biases. Once the thought has been identified as irrational, it can be replaced with a more accurate and beneficial thought.


One way to challenge and replace an irrational thought is to use evidence and logic to question the thought. For example, if you think, "I am not good enough," you can challenge it by thinking about all the times in the past when you have been successful and accomplished something. This will help to provide evidence that contradicts the thought and makes it less believable.


Another way to challenge and replace an irrational thought is to use positive self-talk and positive affirmations. This involves repeating positive statements to yourself, such as "I am good enough" or "I can do this," which can help to counteract negative thoughts and beliefs.


(iii) Re-evaluate the situation

Another critical step in correcting cognitive distortions is to broaden your perspective by looking for nuances and alternative explanations. Instead of viewing things in black and white, try to see the shades of gray. It's also important to consider objective evidence and positive interpretations to balance out your thinking. One way to do this is by writing down your original thought and following it with three or four alternative interpretations. This can help you to see different perspectives and evaluate the evidence objectively. It's also helpful to seek out feedback and opinions from others, as they can provide a fresh perspective and challenge your own biases. Additionally, actively trying to see a situation's positive aspects can help shift the focus from negative thoughts to positive ones.


(iv) Weigh the benefits and drawbacks

Another step to correcting cognitive distortions is to perform a cost-benefit analysis. People tend to repeat behaviors that provide some benefit, so it's important to understand how your thought patterns have helped you cope in the past. Analyze if your thought patterns give you a sense of control in situations where you feel powerless or if they allow you to avoid taking responsibility or necessary risks. It's also important to consider the costs of engaging in cognitive distortions. Consider how it affects your mental and emotional well-being, relationships, career, or other areas of your life. Weighing the pros and cons of your thought patterns can motivate you to change them. It's also helpful to set realistic and measurable goals, track progress, and celebrate progress and small wins.


(v) Practice mindfulness and self-awareness

Practicing mindfulness and self-awareness means being present at the moment and paying attention to one's thoughts, feelings, and physical sensations. This can be achieved through various techniques such as meditation, deep breathing, and journaling. By regularly engaging in these practices, individuals can become more aware of their thoughts and patterns of thinking, which can help them identify cognitive distortions when they arise. Additionally, mindfulness and self-awareness can help individuals develop a sense of detachment from their thoughts, allowing them to observe them objectively rather than getting caught up in them. This can aid in the process of challenging and replacing irrational thoughts with more rational ones. Additionally, mindfulness and self-awareness can help individuals develop greater self-compassion and self-acceptance, which can be beneficial in reducing negative thought patterns.


(vi) Seek professional help

Seeking professional help can be an effective way to address cognitive distortions. A trained therapist or counselor can provide a safe and supportive environment where you can explore your thoughts and feelings without fear of judgement. They can help you identify and challenge cognitive distortions and teach you effective coping strategies and tools. Moreover, they can help you understand the underlying reasons behind your distorted thoughts, such as past experiences, traumas, or other factors. They can also provide guidance on managing and overcoming any underlying mental health conditions contributing to your cognitive distortions. Additionally, seeking professional help can be especially beneficial if you are struggling with severe cognitive distortions or if you are experiencing other mental health issues such as depression or anxiety.

In summary, cognitive distortions are habitual ways of thinking that are often inaccurate and negatively biased. They usually develop over time as a coping mechanism for adverse events. Additionally, it's important to remember that changing thought patterns is a gradual process and requires time and practice to make it a habit.


We hope this article has provided you with a comprehensive understanding of cognitive distortions and their potential impact on our lives. Even if you don't struggle with severe mental health issues, it can be beneficial to take a closer look at your thoughts from time to time. Identifying and addressing cognitive distortions early on can minimize their adverse effects. We'd love to hear about your personal experiences with these patterns of thinking and any methods you've found effective for overcoming them. Please share your thoughts in the comments section below.


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